History and Basic Types of Welding





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In the dynamic world of manufacturing, the process of welding holds a significant position. Often overlooked or taken for granted, welding has been an integral part of numerous industries for years. At Glenn Metalcraft, we understand the importance of welding in creating metal components that meet precise specifications. 

This blog post aims to deepen your understanding of the history and types of welding by exploring various techniques and their historical significance. By the end of this article, you will have a comprehensive knowledge base on the subject of welding and gain insights into how Glenn Metalcraft can cater to your specific welding requirements.

The Broad Topic of Arc Welding

man welds at the factory

Arc welding is the most typically utilized type of welding used in various industries. It involves using a special electrode coated with flux. The electrode is brought close to the workpiece, and an electrical charge is applied to create a powerful spark called an arc between the electrode and the workpiece.

The arc produces extremely high heat, causing the workpiece and the electrode to melt and fuse. This creates a strong joint between the two materials. Take a quick look at this graphic to better understand this process.

Remember that there are different ways to start the arc and complete the welding process, but the above should give a good understanding of how arc welding works.

MIG Welding

The history of MIG welding, also known as Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), can be traced back to the early 1940s. It was developed due to the increasing demand for efficient and rapid welding techniques during World War II. The process was initially referred to as “hollow electrode welding” and gained popularity due to its ability to weld non-ferrous metals, especially aluminum and magnesium.

In MIG welding, a continuous wire electrode is fed through a welding gun, which is also equipped with a shielding gas nozzle. The electrode, made of a consumable metal wire, melts and joins the base metals, while the shielding gas, typically a mixture of argon and carbon dioxide, protects the molten weld pool from atmospheric contamination. This shielding gas creates a stable arc and ensures high-quality welds.

TIG Welding

TIG welding, also known as Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), has a longstanding heritage. It emerged as a vital welding technique, particularly during World War II, when it became indispensable for welding critical components in various industries.

In TIG welding, a non-consumable tungsten electrode generates an arc. Unlike MIG welding, no filler metal is added automatically. Instead, the welder adds the filler metal manually, if necessary. A shielding gas, chosen from inert options like helium or argon, safeguards the weld zone by preventing atmospheric contamination. TIG welding offers excellent control over the welding process, making it suitable for applications that demand intricate welds and exceptional aesthetics.

Both MIG and TIG welding have undergone significant advancements over the years. Improvements in power sources, electrode materials, shielding gases, and welding techniques have further enhanced their efficiency and versatility. MIG and TIG welding continues to be widely utilized in various industries, including automotive, construction, aerospace, and manufacturing, due to their reliability, versatility, and ability to produce high-quality welds.

Electroslag Welding

Electroslag Welding - Types of Welding

Electroslag welding (ESW) is named so because of the unique slag-based process it employs. “Electro” refers to using electric current to generate heat, while “slag” refers to the molten layer of flux that forms during welding.

In ESW, an electric arc is established between a consumable electrode and the workpiece. The heat generated by the arc melts the electrode, and as it descends into the joint, a layer of molten slag is formed on top. This slag acts as a protective shield, preventing atmospheric contamination and maintaining the stability of the welding process.

The concept of ESW originated in the Soviet Union, where engineers were looking for efficient ways to weld large steel structures, such as ship components and heavy machinery parts. The first successful application of ESW occurred in the late 1940s, marking a significant milestone in welding technology.

Over the years, ESW has evolved and gained recognition for its ability to produce high-quality, defect-free welds in thick steel sections. It has found applications in various industries, including shipbuilding, nuclear power, and construction. Continuous advancements in equipment, electrode materials, and process control have further improved the efficiency and reliability of Electroslag welding, solidifying its position as a valuable technique for welding heavy steel components.

Friction Stir Welding

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process invented and developed at The Welding Institute (TWI) in the United Kingdom in 1991. It was initially created as a method to join aluminum materials, but its applications have expanded to include other metals and alloys as well.

In FSW, a specially designed rotating tool with a unique pin and shoulder geometry is plunged into the joint between two workpieces. The rotation of the tool generates frictional heat, softening the material without reaching its melting point. The rotating tool then stirs the softened material, forming a solid-state bond as it cools.

FSW revolutionized the welding industry due to its ability to produce high-quality welds with numerous advantages. It eliminates issues associated with traditional fusion welding, such as distortion, porosity, and solidification defects. FSW also allows for the joining of dissimilar materials and can weld thick sections in a single pass without the need for additional filler materials.

Glenn Metalcraft is Your Welding Professional

Welding techniques have been indispensable in the manufacturing industry for many years. These techniques, each with its unique characteristics and applications, have played a vital role in joining metal components efficiently and effectively. From versatile methods suitable for a wide range of metals to precision-focused techniques for aesthetically pleasing welds, welding has evolved to meet diverse industry needs. 

At Glenn Metalcraft, we understand the importance of welding in achieving the desired results for your projects. We specialize in TIG, MIG, stick, shielded metal arc, and robotic welding. Contact us today to discuss your specific welding requirements and benefit from our expertise in delivering high-quality metal components tailored to your needs.

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